The NFKGSA Board is requesting applications for those who would like to serve on the Rural Community Advisory Committee (RCAC). The purpose of the Committee is to represent the interests of rural communities. The Committee will assist the Board in providing input, information, and recommendations regarding the sustainable management of groundwater in the North Fork Kings GSA area.
The committee members shall serve at the pleasure of the Board and shall include, but not be limited to, representatives of domestic well owners, municipal well operators, local land use planning agencies, residents served by a public water system that serves 200 or more connections, residents served by a small community water system, residents served by a public water system that serves fewer than 200 connections, and environmental justice organizations or community benefit organizations with demonstrated experience working with disadvantaged communities and with expertise in drinking water, groundwater, or land use.
For more information go to NFKGSA Rural Community Advisory Committee webpage.
At the July 22nd Board Meeting, the North Fork Kings GSA approved a cost-sharing agreement between Groundwater Sustainability Agencies (GSAs) in both the Kings and Tulare Lake Subbasins for subsidence monitoring. The Kings River Conservation District (KRCD), a regional special district with diverse water resources management roles, proposed the agreement to support the Subbasins’ monitoring efforts under the Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA).
Because declining groundwater levels can cause surface elevations to lower, subsidence is an indicator of groundwater sustainability under SGMA. Over time subsidence may lead to what SGMA terms an “undesirable result”, for example damage to infrastructure like canals or roadways. Consistent monitoring across the region is key to preventing significant rates of subsidence from causing undesirable results.
The cooperative agreement approved by the North Fork Kings GSA provides funding to increase both the magnitude and frequency of KRCD’s subsidence monitoring program. Established in 2010 with surveys conducted every 2-5 years at 125 monuments, the current monitoring is too infrequent to meet SGMA’s needs for reporting on subsidence conditions and critical data gaps exist in the network. The agreement will allow KRCD to conduct surveys annually and establish an additional 71 network monuments that fill known data gaps.
Subsidence data collected by KRCD over the years was used in the development of the North Fork Kings GSA’s Groundwater Sustainability Plan (GSP) and has been referenced by GSAs as a source for mandatory SGMA reporting to the State. Cooperating with KRCD and the GSAs is a cost-effective solution to bring robust data to the table for successful groundwater management.
The agreement outlines cost-sharing of 8% between eleven GSAs in the two subbasins, while KRCD will contribute 12% to the overall cost. The cost for 2020 monitoring is estimated in the agreement not to exceed $30,000. The South Fork Kings GSA and Southwest Kings GSA, both located in the Tulare Lake Subbasin, have approved the agreement. The remaining GSAs are currently considering approval.
The North Fork Kings GSA together with the six other GSAs in the Kings Subbasin submitted the first Annual Report to the CA Department of Water Resources (DWR) on April 1, 2020. A requirement under the Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA), the Annual Report serves to inform and update both the State and stakeholders in the Kings Subbasin on groundwater conditions and sustainability progress. Thanks to favorable hydrology for the reporting period, Kings Subbasin groundwater conditions improved overall with storage increasing by 210,000 acre-feet Subbasin wide.
The report indicates groundwater extractions in the North Fork Kings GSA represent an estimated 17% of total 1.06 million acre-feet extractions in the Subbasin. Irrigation Districts and landowners alike in the North Fork Kings GSA took every opportunity to capitalize on available surplus surface water supplies, capturing Kings River water during flood releases to recharge in basins or use on farms, offsetting groundwater use. The Annual Report focuses on water year 2019 (Sept 2018 – Oct 2019), a hydrologic “wet year” seeing 134% of average diversions on the Kings River, the majority of surface water supply to the region.
The North Fork Kings GSA plans to expand its groundwater recharge capacity at both the landowner and agency level to take advantage of similar wet hydrology in future years. Partnering with landowners to implement on-farm recharge practices, constructing recharge basins, and expanding existing recharge facilities are all strategies outlined to achieve a sustainable groundwater supply. The combined efforts of the North Fork Kings GSA and six other cooperating Kings Subbasin GSAs will ultimately lead the region to long-term sustainability.
The data for the report was collected from the seven GSAs’ monitoring networks, groundwater extractions, surface water supply, total water use, and changes in groundwater storage. Combined surface and groundwater use in the Kings Subbasin across sectors including agriculture, urban, and managed recharge totaled 2.7 million are-feet for the period.
Considering this first report was prepared just months after the submission of the Groundwater Sustainability Plans (GSPs), the data does not stray from data already included in the seven Kings Subbasin GSAs’ GSPs. Although the Subbasin used the opportunity to include any additional data collected through the reporting period and established a template for future reports.
The North Fork Kings GSA adopted its GSP on December 18, 2019, marking the transition from the planning to implementation phase. Following the adoption of a Groundwater Sustainability Plan (GSP) SGMA requires GSAs to submit annual reports to DWR on April 1 every year as a tool to track and communicate GSP implementation progress.
There is no grading or scoring criteria on the Annual Report, and DWR expects this first report to be missing some information considering the short timeframe between GSP adoption and the report due date.
Left to Right: Supervisor Mendes, Fresno County; Frank Zonneveld, Laguna Irrigation District; Danielle Roberts, Lanare CSD; Mark McKean, Crescent Canal Co.; Stephen Maddox, Liberty Mill Race Co.; Leonard Acquistapace, Riverdale Irrigation District
Riverdale, CA – The North Fork Kings Groundwater Sustainability Agency (NFKGSA) Board unanimously adopted their Groundwater Sustainability Plan at the December 18 meeting. NFKGSA’s Board is proposing a phased approach over 20 years to mitigate the target overdraft of 59,000 acre feet per year, NFKGSA’s allocation of the Kings Subbasin total annual overdraft of 122,000 acre feet. Board Chair Mark McKean thanked the plan developer Provost & Pritchard, staff and the Board for all of their work over the last two years. “This Plan is a living document,” stated McKean. “We realize it isn’t a perfect document but a building block and in five years we will have a better Plan than we have today by working together.”
The NFKGSA will use the Groundwater Sustainability Plan (GSP) as a roadmap to balance its groundwater. The GSP includes potential policies and projects that will impact groundwater management in the region for years to come as the North Fork Kings GSA works to achieve sustainable groundwater supply. Technical consultant Provost & Pritchard worked over the last two years collecting data that documents historic and current groundwater conditions; the GSP uses this information as the foundation to define a path forward for how groundwater will be managed. The overdraft can be balanced using both supply-side and demand-side solutions. The toolkit of projects and management actions will include both, but the NFKGSA Board plans to prioritize supply-side solutions including floodwater capture for groundwater recharge.
is the one of seven groundwater sustainability agencies that will coordinate to
achieve sustainability in the King Subbasin, a critically overdrafted
groundwater basin that lies within Fresno County. Once all seven groundwater sustainability
agencies adopt their plans, they will be submitted together with a coordination
agreement to the State prior to the deadline of January 31, 2020.
At the July 17th Board Meeting, the North Fork Kings GSA Board approved opening the draft Groundwater Sustainability Plan (GSP) 90-day public review and comment period. Members of the public are encouraged to download the GSP on the website at northforkkings.org/gspcomment and provide comment for the agency’s consideration.
The GSP includes potential policies and projects that will impact groundwater management in the region for years to come as the North Fork Kings GSA works to achieve sustainable groundwater supply. Technical consultants worked over the last two years collecting data that documents historic and current groundwater conditions; the GSP uses this information as the foundation to define a path forward for how groundwater will be managed.
The North Fork Kings GSA will use the GSP as a roadmap to balance its estimated 59,000 acre-feet of annual groundwater overdraft by 2040. The overdraft can be balanced using both supply-side and demand-side solutions. The toolkit of projects and management actions will include both, but the North Fork Kings GSA Board plans to prioritize supply-side solutions including floodwater capture for groundwater recharge.
Members of the public are encouraged to take part in the important process of defining the path forward toward groundwater sustainability. The public comment period will conclude at the end of the day on October 21st.
The North Fork Kings GSA is hosting workshops in August to review what is in the GSP and how it impacts those with a stake in groundwater management. View the GSP calendar for workshop details: GSP Calendar.
Click below to download the GSP and find more info regarding the Public Review period.
Ready to comment? Click below to access our online comment form.
Water is scarce. Sustainability of the resource we all depend on requires balanced inputs and outputs. Whether SGMA is the compulsion or not, responsibly managing water demands a budget.
In the Kings Subbasin we’re working to balance an overdrafted water “account”. The North Fork Kings GSA, along with the six other GSAs in the Kings Subbasin, is required by SGMA to bring its account into balance by 2040.
A water budget, required in the Groundwater Sustainability Plan (GSP), provides valuable insight for those managing our water. It informs current conditions and will measure impact of the North Fork Kings GSA’s upcoming sustainability efforts.
The budget tracks water inputs and outputs to calculate the change in groundwater storage in the service area. A negative groundwater storage indicates overdraft.
Groundwater Storage = Inputs – Outputs
Sustainability can be achieved by increasing water supply (inputs) and/or decreasing water demand (outputs). The GSP will define how the North Fork Kings GSA plans to balance its estimated 50,300 AF of annual overdraft. The GSA can increase its inputs, decrease its outputs, or a combination of both through projects and management actions. For example increasing inputs through flood water capture off the Kings River in wet years can offset irrigation outputs, bringing the budget closer to balance.
Inputs are water sources, and can include additional surface water, precipitation, estimated groundwater pumping, and groundwater inflow. Outputs are water uses, and can include irrigation, municipal, residential, and industrial uses, as well as groundwater outflow. The North Fork Kings GSA is committed to prioritizing supply side solutions for sustainability.
There are only two ways to achieve sustainability and eliminate groundwater overdraft for the North Fork Kings service area: increase water supply, primarily through project development and reduce water demand, primarily through management actions. The NFKGSA Board is emphasizing increasing water supply with the understanding there are hurdles to overcome.
The preliminary project list continues to be updated and contains recharge projects that would yield an estimated annual average of approximately 50,000 acre feet per year based on historic floodwater availability. The seven Kings Subbasin GSAs have reached agreement on an initial overdraft amount for the entire Kings Subbasin of 122,000 acre feet. The North Fork Kings GSA estimated amount of the 122,000 acre feet is 50,300 acre feet.
The amount of overdraft that cannot be overcome with increasing the water supply will need to be overcome with management actions that reduce water demand. Demand reduction through management actions will likely need to be initiated within 5 – 10 years if project development isn’t progressing as needed.
Management Actions are programs and policies that will aid the GSA in achieving sustainability primarily through water demand reduction measures and improving data monitoring. A suite of potential management actions will be presented in the GSP that could be implemented at the GSA level or landowner level. The GSA may not want to dictate management actions at the landowner level, what works for one landowner may not work for another and economic impacts must be considered.
Below are potential management actions that will be considered in the GSP and the estimated time for implementing those actions.
Management Actions for the 2020-2025 Timeframe
Management Actions for the 2025-2030 Timeframe
Management Actions for the 2030-2040 Timeframe
Discussions and the development of the management actions details will begin after the adoption of the GSP in January 2020.
A portfolio of solutions will be considered to achieve sustainable groundwater under SGMA. Projects and management actions can work in tandem to augment water supply and reduce water demand, stabilizing groundwater levels. The North Fork Kings GSA Board’s first priority is implementing projects to increase water supply in the service area. The North Fork Regional Recharge Project introduced by Kevin Johansen, Provost & Pritchard, aligns with that priority. The project is in early conceptual stages.
Three groundwater recharge basins with estimated annual recharge capacity of 15,000 AF (acre-feet) are included in the project scope, leveraging suitable recharge conditions in the GSA’s northeast region. The average annual cost per AF of recharge is $160 according to preliminary project cost estimates. The project includes two new basins and expansion of an existing Laguna Irrigation District basin. An additional component needed is improvement and expansion of Liberty Canal to increase current carrying capacity and secure water delivery.
Surface soil type, absence of clay layers, and groundwater flows at project sites are highly conducive to recharge that benefits the entire GSA’s service area. The bulk of surface soils at proposed sites are coarse sands and sandy loam, ideal for percolation into the groundwater aquifer below. And although much of the GSA is underlain with clay layers, the northeast region is absent of these layers. Because groundwater generally flows east to west in the GSA, the groundwater recharged by the project would flow into the rest of the service area. This includes to disadvantaged communities of Lanare and Riverdale where soil type and clay layers are unsuitable for recharge projects.
(click map images to enlarge)
To help cover project cost, the North Fork Kings GSA is pursuing
grant funding through Integrated Regional Water Management (IRWM) Prop 1 Implementation
funds. A pre-application was sent to the Kings Basin Water Authority for review
and if selected, will compete for funding from a pool of $12.7 million for the Tulare
Kern Funding Area.
The latest Groundwater Sustainability Plan (GSP) update from the North Fork Kings GSA technical consultants lends insight into the current water quality condition in the GSA service area. Water quality is an indicator of groundwater sustainability. The North Fork Kings GSA will establish sustainability criteria for water quality in its GSP, defining the level of water quality that must be maintained by 2040.
The analysis of water quality data reveals despite lowering groundwater levels, water quality contaminant levels have not worsened over time. But exceedances in maximum contaminant levels (MCL’s) do exist in some areas.
The GSA’s consultant conducted an analysis of publicly available Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Program (GAMA) data from 73 wells located in the GSA. This analysis focused on the most recent 10-year period, with some earlier historical data included when available. The black circles on the map below indicate wells with water quality data used in the analysis.
The water quality data drawn from the wells in the North Fork Kings GSA was measured against the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) primary maximum contaminant levels (MCL’s) and secondary MCL’s. Contaminants without MCL’s were measured against health-based screening levels.
EPA’s primary MCL: legally enforceable standards that apply to public water system and protect public health by limiting levels of contaminants in drinking water
EPA’s secondary MCL: non-enforceable guidelines regulating contaminants that may cause cosmetic effects or aesthetic effects. This is the EPA’s recommended standard, but is not required
The water quality data can be analyzed two ways: by contaminants’ level of exceedance (Table 1) or by existence of contaminants in aquifer “zones” (Table 2).
Existing clay layers in the North Fork Kings GSA allow the division of three conceptual aquifer “zones”: 1) the shallow zone exists from 0-150 feet below ground surface, 2) the intermediate zone exists from 150 feet below ground surface to the base of the unconfined aquifer, and 3) the deep zone exists below the unconfined aquifer. Table 2 above shows that there is not necessarily one zone with water quality exceedances more problematic than another.
Each contaminant’s existing levels can be analyzed individually using separate maps for each aquifer zone. The maps indicate contaminant levels with green, yellow, and red markers. Green indicates contaminant levels are less than half of the MCL. Yellow indicates contaminant levels are more than half or approaching the MCL. Red indicates contaminates are in exceedance of the MCL.
Case Example: Arsenic
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Click images to enlarge.
The maps show that there are more arsenic MCL exceedances in the intermediate zone, with exceedances concentrated near the center of GSA.
Case Example: Nitrates
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Click images to enlarge.
The nitrate maps indicate few MCL exceedances in the shallow zone, only a couple in the intermediate, and a single instance in the deep zone.
Understanding water quality in the GSA through data analysis is a key step toward setting metrics that guide the North Fork Kings GSA sustainability efforts and indicate success. Water quality is a sustainability indicator; the GSA will establish a measurable objectives for water quality that quantify the level to maintain by the year 2040.
The seven Kings Subbasin GSAs have reached agreement on an initial overdraft amount for the Kings Subbasin of 122,000 acre feet. The North Fork Kings GSA estimated amount of the 122,000 acre feet is 50,300 acre feet. The North Fork Kings GSA Board has already identified potential projects to begin correcting the target overdraft amount by the SGMA sustainability deadline of 2040.
There are two basic ways to achieve sustainability and eliminate overdraft: increase water supply or reduce water demand. The Board’s first priority is to increase water supply, but there are hurdles for this course of action within the North Fork Kings area including availability and frequency of additional water; all Kings River water is allocated through a water rights schedule; and the service area has physical constraints for recharge including soil types and a limited distribution system.
The map below (click map to enlarge) shows the general soil types in the North Fork Kings GSA. The green areas in the eastern portion of the GSA are sandier soils and more conducive for recharging the aquifer. The western portion has heavier clay soils that are more impermeable and consequently poor for recharge.
Although the eastern part of the service area has better soils for recharge, it lacks a distribution system. Therefore, infrastructure needs to be constructed to deliver water to any future recharge projects that may be built. The map below (click map to enlarge) represents significant surface water features in the North Fork Kings GSA.
North Fork Kings GSA preliminary project list contains nine groundwater recharge projects yielding an estimated annual average of approximately 20,000 acre feet per year. Additional projects will need to be identified to alleviate the overdraft amount. If water supply tactics are not sufficiently successful to eliminate the 50, 300 acre feet overdraft number then management actions to reduce water demand will need to be implemented.