Skip to content Skip to left sidebar Skip to footer


North Fork Kings GSA to Conduct a Confined Aquifer Study

The North Fork Kings GSA is conducting a confined aquifer study within its boundaries. This study aims to estimate groundwater pumping from the confined aquifer beneath the Corcoran Clay to identify impacts on land subsidence and implement preventive measures for the Agency’s ability to maintain sustainable subsidence rates.

The confined aquifer study is a requirement for the North Fork Kings GSA to maintain its approved Groundwater Sustainability Plan (GSP) status with the State. The study is one of 12 corrective actions provided in August in the GSP approval letter from the California Department of Water Resources (DWR). Addressing the corrective actions is a priority, as having an approved GSP is needed to maintain local control over groundwater.

As part of the study, the North Fork Kings GSA will establish a well monitoring network to observe the confined aquifer’s response to pumping. The monitoring network will help identify and fill any data gaps and develop a better understanding of groundwater use and flow.

To support the study efforts, the North Fork Kings GSA is initiating a well registration program to gather data on well locations, depths, and perforated intervals. This information will help the North Fork Kings GSA understand the specific aquifers that wells are pumping from, particularly the extent of groundwater being pumped from the confined aquifer.

Landowner participation in well registration is key to the study’s successful completion over the next year. The North Fork Kings GSA asks all well owners to register their wells. Visit to get started now by joining the volunteer Early Access Group.

Well Registration Begins on Watermark, a New Online Tool for Landowners

More on Watermark
Land IQ

Watermark provides monthly
evapotranspiration (ET) data by parcel from Land IQ . ET is the amount of water consumed by the plant through evaporation and transpiration. In combination with satellite imagery, Land IQ uses scientifically tested ground
truthing to generate hourly ET
data. Temperature, humidity, net radiation, and wind speed are measured through the ground truthing process.

Land IQ is a trusted resource
by approximately 40 GSAs
and districts across California. The company has collaborated with UC Davis, UC Cooperative Extension, and has advisors from the USDA Agricultural Research Service as part of its efforts to provide accurate, quality ET data.

A new online tool for landowners to register wells is launching in the North Fork Kings GSA. The tool, named Watermark, is an efficient way for landowners to fill out information about their wells using a digital form.

Over the next several months, landowner participation in the well registration process through Watermark is needed as a critical piece of completing a groundwater aquifer study requested by the State.

Key to the study on what’s known as the “confined” aquifer is knowing the depth of wells and their perforations, in addition to well location. Successful completion of the study in 2024 is mandatory, and directly impacts whether control over groundwater management remains local rather than in the hands of State agencies.

For domestic well owners, registration will be required to receive any financial support for wells that may go dry under a future Domestic Well Mitigation Program.

Watermark as a well registration tool is only the first step in a long-term vision for the platform. The online platform will be expanded over time to include water accounting capabilities once groundwater allocations are in place. For initial launch, landowners can use Watermark to begin tracking their monthly water use by accessing parcel-level ET data from Land IQ.

During November and December, Watermark will undergo a pilot launch with the North Fork Kings GSA Board and Committee members, and a Volunteer Early Access Group. Starting in January, Watermark will be available to access directly from the North Fork Kings GSA website.


Notice to Riparian Rights-Holders:

Submitting your annual Statement of Diversion and Use to the State Water Resources Control Board (State Board) for riparian pumping is crucial to ensure your surface water use is counted by the North Fork Kings GSA under future groundwater allocations. The reporting process aligns with the goals of the Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA) and will benefit you in the long term. Further information regarding the State Board’s reporting requirements can be found at https://www.waterboards.

A Note From the General Manager

Justin Mendes, General Manager

During the first half of 2023, the North Fork Kings GSA was focused on our Roadmap to an Allocation. Most of that time was spent discussing the methodologies to calculate a Sustainable Yield and the rules and regulations of the agency. As of right now, these items exist in draft form and remain available for more input. Some may view this as falling behind other GSAs but truthfully, we have time to observe what works and what doesn’t. Also, by having five committees there is more opportunity to discuss ideas.

In August, the Kings Subbasin received its formal approval letter from the CA Department of Water Resources with 12 “Corrective Actions.” Most of the corrective actions center around data gaps and implementing a Domestic Well Mitigation Program. Maintaining our approved status needs to be our top priority and thus the Board rightfully decided to shift the focus from our “Roadmap” to our Corrective Actions. In the final quarter of 2023, we will be initiating data studies and a Well Registration Program to preserve our approved status.

With our short-term goal of gathering data, the Board still has a long-term goal of providing all constituents and landowners a vision for the future so they can plan ahead. SGMA is not a math test with an absolute answer at the end. SGMA is a group Accounting project to demonstrate various methods to eliminate over-pumping. The crucial piece to this is developing a Water Accounting system to help water users make efficient decisions. In 2024 expect extensive outreach to assist you in learning more about water accounting.

John Coelho Creates Generational Sustainability with Recharge

John Coelho is leading a decades-long, multi-generational farming career. He’s creating a sustainable operation for the generations that follow him.

John operates Casaca Vineyard with his brother, and thinks strategically about managing water supplies, especially when it comes to correcting groundwater overdraft. In 2017, he created a groundwater recharge pond where he started using his own acreage to recharge the aquifer. In 2022, he built another 320-acre pond. Though there were drought conditions between 2017 and 2022, the wet year in winter 2023 filled both ponds for groundwater recharge.

He says it’s important to be ready to capture surface water so that during wet years he can help keep surface water within the North Fork Kings GSA boundary.

“You’ve got to build it before you need it,” John said.

Landowners may see credits for their efforts down the line as North Fork Kings GSA pursues policies to support landowners who recharge. But for John, groundwater recharge is also a way to ensure sustainability for his family’s future farming operation.

“You want to hand something off to your children that’s sustainable,” John said. “Groundwater recharge provides a long-term solution to keep your operation sustainable.”

Performing groundwater recharge requires proper maintenance, but this maintenance has been worked into Casaca Vineyard’s ongoing operation. He says maintaining the ponds for groundwater recharge is an investment into his community.

“Our family has always believed in giving back to the community. Keeping water in our area is a way to do that,” John said.

Working towards a future of sustainability through grower recharge

This year’s record water year has led to a unique opportunity for North Fork Kings GSA growers to contribute to groundwater sustainability through grower recharge – the application of using available surface water during wet years to recharge the aquifer beneath grower’s land.

Reid Potter, a grower in the North Fork Kings GSA, was one of several within the agency to take the opportunity to perform grower recharge. To perform recharge, Reid flooded the open fields on his ranch. He also identified nearby landowners with surface water and open fields to help them perform recharge on their land.

Reid has a long history of farming, beginning in 1970 with his father’s purchase of a ranch within the North Fork Kings GSA area, which Reid took over in 2009.

Reid began practicing grower recharge on open land in March 2023. A major motivator for Reid’s participation was the status of the 2022-23 water year.

“Last year really hit home for me. I spent more time last summer working on wells in three months than in 40 years. So, this year when we had all this water, I knew I had to do something,” Reid said.

Although he’s doing what he can to make his land sustainable, Reid acknowledges that having more growers participate will be what it takes to make an impact and secure sustainability within the North Fork Kings GSA.

“We’re all in this together, and we have to help each other. We could solve our problems if we got everybody involved – if we can get a big part of the GSA involved,” he said.

Since practicing grower recharge, Reid has encouraged others in the GSA to understand its importance and do the same.

“It’s easy to talk about it [grower recharge], but when you do it, and people see it, it’s like, ‘okay, that’s something I can do.’ It’s not rocket science,” said Reid. 

Reid strongly encourages others within the North Fork Kings GSA to contact General Manager Justin Mendes to learn more about practicing grower recharge.

To learn more about practicing recharge on your land, call us at 559.242.6118 or email General Manager Justin Mendes at

North Fork Kings GSA to perform a canal capacity study

North Fork Kings GSA is performing a canal capacity study during the 2023-24 fiscal year to identify where potential improvements can be made to the canal and conveyance systems within the agency. The study will allow surface water units within the North Fork GSA to deliver as much available Kings River water as possible for irrigation and recharge to help comply with the Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA).

The study will gather information to estimate the existing canal capacity and constraints of existing conveyance systems through site visits and discussions with existing operations staff. Following the study, a second phase consisting of a more detailed survey of needed improvements and preliminary design of the highest priority systems may be conducted to help estimate the costs of the improvements and determine participation between North Fork Kings GSA and the applicable surface water unit.

By performing this study, North Fork Kings GSA aims to increase the capacity of the systems to bring more surface water in to offset groundwater pumping and conduct groundwater recharge.

The canal capacity study will be shared with irrigation districts and the mutual water companies within the North Fork Kings so they can quickly identify where to invest in improvements.

North Fork Kings GSA establishes Grower Advisory Committee

The North Fork Kings GSA has formed a Grower Advisory Committee comprised of local growers. The Grower Advisory Committee was formed to provide input and guidance on policies and programs that the North Fork Kings GSA is implementing, including the development of groundwater allocations, the launch of a well registration portal, and more.

The committee consists of nine local growers and is led by Chair Dan Errotabere and Vice Chair Adam Mendes. Most committee members have demonstrated active involvement in the North Fork Kings GSA or other relevant boards and organizations. When selecting members, geographic representation and acreage were taken into consideration, ensuring a diverse and inclusive representation within the committee.

The first Grower Advisory Committee meeting took place in March, with the early meetings focused on testing and providing feedback on an early version of the new well registration tool that will launch this fall.

“Having the ability to serve on one of the many North Fork Kings GSA committees provides the opportunity to participate and offer input to meet mandated objectives,” said committee member Matt Efird.

“Only by working collectively with fellow stakeholders and the Board, as well as the other GSAs within the subbasin, will we be able to move forward in a progressive and positive manner and develop successful solutions.”

The committee will continue to meet monthly and provide ongoing feedback from a grower’s perspective.

General Manager Justin Mendes envisions the committee to be the primary sounding board for future policies and plans, and to help with outreach by acting as ambassadors between the agency and growers within North Fork Kings GSA.

The Grower Advisory Committee is one of several committees of the North Forks Kings GSA, including the Technical, Rural Communities Advisory, Policy, and Financial committees that provide input and guidance to the Board as they work towards sustainability.

New tool for growers to understand their water use and register wells is launching this year

A new online tool to help growers and residents understand their water use and register wells will launch this fall. Currently in development by the North Fork Kings GSA’s consultant MLJ Environmental, the tool is being designed for users to easily view their historic water use data and register their wells.

The North Fork Kings GSA previously provided field-level water use data from Land IQ, reported as evapotranspiration, or ET, to stakeholders using static map images ( But the new tool will improve the usefulness of this information by allowing users to view the data for their own fields in a personalized and interactive way. Viewing the data will become increasingly important for growers who will benefit from routinely tracking water use once a groundwater allocation is implemented.

The tool is also designed to provide a streamlined method for well registration to help fill data gaps and manage groundwater sustainably. The North Fork Kings GSA recognizes it cannot effectively manage groundwater without partnering with its landowners to understand more about the infrastructure impacting supply. Registering wells with the agency is a simple way landowners can provide information for successful local groundwater management, ultimately keeping the State from stepping in to control the process.

Besides technical need, the tool creates a platform for streamlined communications between the North Fork Kings GSA and its stakeholders. For domestic well users, this could mean receiving notice and resources before their well goes dry during a drought. The tool will house information like well location and the user’s contact information so the North Fork Kings GSA can identify at-risk wells and notify households ahead of time.

Feedback from future users has been at the core of the tool’s development. Early development versions were tested by North Fork Kings GSA Grower Advisory Committee members how used their real-world experience to provide feedback. Their input was repeatedly implemented to improve the tool’s features and usability.

For those who want to learn more about the tool and receive assistance with onboarding, a series of outreach events will follow the tool’s launch to assist growers and residents with creating and using their accounts. Stay up to date on development and launch by signing up for emails from the North Fork Kings GSA at

New Groundwater Recharge Project Registration Form to Help Landowners Receive Credits

The North Fork Kings GSA has developed a new recharge project registration form for compliant landowner-driven recharge operations. The form is now available online here.

The recharge project registration form benefits landowners within the North Fork Kings GSA who conducted intentional surface water recharge in 2023 and wish to seek future groundwater extraction credits.  Being aware of the recharge projects allows the North Fork Kings GSA to give proper credit to stakeholders performing recharge once policies governing groundwater credits are in place.

The North Fork Kings GSA will use the registration form to recognize the efforts of landowners in recharging the groundwater. The GSA gives landowners freedom to operate their own groundwater recharge project operations in concert with their surface water provider.  

Beyond landowner credits, recharge project registration helps quantify the current capacity available for groundwater recharge within the North Fork Kings GSA to help the agency assess progress toward sustainability goals.

Under the Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA), the North Fork Kings GSA is working to address groundwater overdraft and stabilize groundwater levels. A key component of achieving sustainability, while striving for continued viability of irrigated agriculture in the area, is to increase the use of available surface water as groundwater use is reduced. One way to increase the water supply is by capturing excess surface water when available and storing it underground through active recharge projects.

The North Fork Kings GSA thanks every landowner playing an active role by conducting recharge activities. Privately operated recharge projects help the GSA maintain local control over sustainability goals, while replenishing the aquifer.

Stakeholders can access the registration form on the website here, and should email the completed form to


Translate »